هشدارها و علائم ایمنی

هشدارها و علائم ایمنی

برای اینکه بتوانیم در برخورد با مواد خطرناک، بخوبی از برچسب های ایمنی الصاق شده بر روی آنها استفاده کنیم باید با مفهوم شکل ها و حروف نشان داده شده در جدولهای زیر آشنا باشیم:




 

 

 

اختصارات مربوط به انواع خطرات (R-Phrases)

 

در حال حاضر در بسیاری از کشورها اطلاعات مربوط به مواد شیمیایی حاوی کد های مشخص کننده خطرات مواد (R Phrases) مانند R23 ، R45 و غیره هستند. معانی این کدها در زیر آمده است. (منبع: http://msds.chem.ox.ac.uk)

 

    • R1 Explosive when dry.

    • R2 Risk of explosion by shock, friction, fire or other source of ignition.

    • R3 Extreme risk of explosion by shock, friction, fire or other sources of ignition.

    • R4 Forms very sensitive explosive metallic compounds.

    • R5 Heating may cause an explosion.

    • R6 Explosive with or without contact with air.

    • R7 May cause fire.

    • R8 Contact with combustible material may cause fire.

    • R9 Explosive when mixed with combustible material.

    • R10 Flammable.

    • R11 Highly flammable.

    • R12 Extremely flammable.

    • R13 Extremely flammable liquefied gas

    • R14 Reacts violently with water.

    • R15 Contact with water liberates extremely flammable gases.

    • R16 Explosive when mixed with oxidizing substances.

    • R17 Spontaneously flammable in air.

    • R18 In use, may form inflammable/explosive vapour-air mixture.

    • R19 May form explosive peroxides.

    • R20 Harmful by inhalation.

    • R21 Harmful in contact with skin.

    • R22 Harmful if swallowed.

    • R23 Toxic by inhalation.

    • R24 Toxic in contact with skin.

    • R25 Toxic if swallowed.

    • R26 Very toxic by inhalation.

    • R27 Very toxic in contact with skin.

    • R28 Very toxic if swallowed.

    • R29 Contact with water liberates toxic gas.

    • R30 Can become highly flammable in use.

    • R31 Contact with acids liberates toxic gas.

    • R32 Contact with acid liberates very toxic gas.

    • R33 Danger of cumulative effects.

    • R34 Causes burns.

    • R35 Causes severe burns.

    • R36 Irritating to eyes.

    • R37 Irritating to respiratory system.

    • R38 Irritating to skin.

    • R39 Danger of very serious irreversible effects.

    • R40 Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect.

    • R41 Risk of serious damage to the eyes.

    • R42 May cause sensitization by inhalation.

    • R43 May cause sensitization by skin contact.

    • R44 Risk of explosion if heated under confinement.

    • R45 May cause cancer.

    • R46 May cause heritable genetic damage.

    • R47 May cause birth defects

    • R48 Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure.

    • R49 May cause cancer by inhalation.

    • R50 Very toxic to aquatic organisms.

    • R51 Toxic to aquatic organisms.

    • R52 Harmful to aquatic organisms.

    • R53 May cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.

    • R54 Toxic to flora.

    • R55 Toxic to fauna.

    • R56 Toxic to soil organisms.

    • R57 Toxic to bees.

    • R58 May cause long-term adverse effects in the environment.

    • R59 Dangerous to the ozone layer.

    • R60 May impair fertility.

    • R61 May cause harm to the unborn child.

    • R62 Risk of impaired fertility.

    • R63 Possible risk of harm to the unborn child.

    • R64 May cause harm to breastfed babies.

    • R65 Harmful: may cause lung damage if swallowed.

    • R66 Repeated exposure may cause skin dryness or cracking.

    • R67 Vapours may cause drowsiness and dizziness.

    • R68 Possible risk of irreversible effects.

 

اختصارات مربوط به انواع توصیه های ایمنی (S-Phrases)

 

در حال حاضر در بسیاری از کشورها اطلاعات مربوط به مواد شیمیایی حاوی کد های مربوط به توصیه های ایمنی در مورد مواد (S Phrases) مانند S17 ، S2 و غیره هستند. معانی این کدها در زیر آمده است. (منبع: http://msds.chem.ox.ac.uk)

 

    • S1 Keep locked up.

    • S2 Keep out of the reach of children.

    • S3 Keep in a cool place.

    • S4 Keep away living quarters.

    • S5 Keep contents under ... (there follows the name of a liquid).

    • S6 Keep under ... (there follows the name of an inert gas).

    • S7 Keep container tightly closed.

    • S8 Keep container dry.

    • S9 Keep container in a well-ventilated place.

    • S12 Do not keep the container sealed.

    • S13 Keep away food, drink and animal foodstuffs.

    • S14 Keep away ... (a list of incompatible materials will follow).

    • S15 Keep away heat.

    • S16 Keep away sources of ignition.

    • S17 Keep away combustible material.

    • S18 Handle and open container with care.

    • S20 When using, do not eat or drink.

    • S21 When using do not smoke.

    • S22 Do not breathe dust.

    • S23 Do not breathe vapour.

    • S24 Avoid contact with skin.

    • S25 Avoid contact with eyes.

    • S26 In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.

    • S27 Take off immediately all contaminated clothing.

    • S28 After contact with skin, wash immediately with plenty of soap-suds.

    • S29 Do not empty into drains.

    • S30 Never add water to this product.

    • S33 Take precautionary measures against static discharges.

    • S35 This material and its container must be disposed of in a safe way.

    • S36 Wear suitable protective clothing.

    • S37 Wear suitable gloves.

    • S38 In case of insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment.

    • S39 Wear eye / face protection.

    • S40 To clean the floor and all objects contaminated by this material, use .... (there follows suitable cleaning material).

    • S41 In case of fire and / or explosion do not breathe fumes.

    • S42 During fumigation / spraying wear suitable respiratory equipment.

    • S43 In case of fire use ... (there follows the type of fire-fighting equipment to be used.)

    • S45 In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show the label whenever possible.)

    • S46 If swallowed, seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label.

    • S47 Keep at temperature not exceeding...

    • S48 To be kept wet with (there follows a material name).

    • S49 Keep only in the original container.

    • S50 Do not mix with ...

    • S51 Use only in well ventilated areas.

    • S52 Not recommended for interior use on large surface areas.

    • S53 Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use.

    • S56 Dispose of this material and its container at hazardous or special waste collection point.